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Information and Communication Technology

Technology public information obtained in the present era is growing very rapidly, even technology has started to be implemented in daily life so that you are expected to be able to adapt to changing times in the hope you can use, implement and run today's technology. For mengeluasnya further, let's talk about information and communication teknlogi know today.

Every day, people are always in communication with others, either directly or indirectly. What is the purpose of people to communicate? Human communication to get information. Information and communication technology (ICT) is part of the science and technology (Science and Technology) which in general is all the technology related to the capture, collection, processing, storage, distribution and presentation of information idstreet friends.

In life can not be separated from information technology equipment advanced equipment that you can use at the present time. Here is an example - an example of information technology equipment used by the public, especially you in everyday life.

1. Calculator
That is a tool used to obtain information on the calculation of numbers.
2. Computer
namely in the form of hardware and software tools used to assist humans in processing the data into information and save it for another time displayed. Computer-generated information can be text, images, sound, video and animation.
3. Laptop / Notebook
That equipment that works the same as the computer but the practical form it can be folded and carried around for use baterrai assistance charger that can be used without using electricity.
That is a kind of computer equipment that practical shape that blends with the Monitor CPU so easy to place on the table not take up much space but still have to use the electricity directly. Because not include batteries.
5. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) / Handheld Computers
That is a kind of computer equipment but the shape is very mini so that it can be included a pocket, but the benefit is almost the same as the computer can process the data, even now many PDA that can also function as mobile (PDA Phone)
6. Electronic Dictionary
ie electronic equipment that is used to to translate between languages
7. MP4 Player
ie equipment that is used as a data storage medium as well as a video and music player and games.
8. Digital Cameras
ie equipment that is used to store pictures or videos using digital or disk storage.
9. Digital Quran
ie equipment that is used to store data that can be issued containing Quran text and sound.
10. Flash disk
namely in the form of data storage media Universal Serial Bus but can store large amounts of data.
11. MP3 Player
ie equipment that can store data at the same time can be used for playing music and listening to the radio.
12. Television
Technological equipment that is used to convey information in the form of moving pictures / videos directly.
13. Radio
Ie electronic equipment that is used to convey information in the form of sound from the transmitter station through a predetermined frequency.

But the existence of information technology does not necessarily sophisticated as today's era, for that we have to understand the history of the development of information technology from time to time.

The development of human civilization is accompanied by the development of ways of delivering information to communicate (hereinafter known as information and communication technology). Since prehistoric times, the way people communicate information to communicate continues to evolve to this day. Have been found of information technologies and communications are now partly outdated and partly they then used, even continuously researched and developed to be more advanced.

1. Period of Pre-History (... s / d 3000 BC)
At this time humans to communicate is still limited to the introduction of the forms they found. Human describe the information they get on the cave walls about hunting and animal prey. Because of their ability in speaking was limited to grunts, gestures, and movement of the hand as an early form of communications to the period up to the year 3000 BC.

2. Historical Period (3000 BC s / d 1400s BC)

- Year 3000 BC
For the first time in communicating with writing is Sumerian. By using symbols pictographs as letters. Symbols or letters are also to have a different sound (mentions), so that the writings be a word, sentence, and language that have meaning.
- Year 2900 BC
In the year 2900 BC Bansa ancient Egyptians had used hieroglyphic letters to communicate. The letters hieroglyphic symbols consist of objects, such as tools, animals, or ships. The letters also hieroglyphic symbols, ideas and emotions, such as movement, time, and feeling happy. When hieroglyphic symbols combined, will have the pronunciation and different meanings. Hieroglyphic writing and language is more advanced than Sumerian writing. Writing systems have been used by shang in Chinese dynasty that ruled in 1766-1050 BC. The system writes a direct ancestor of modern Chinese writing system today, which uses symbols or characters for each word.
- In 500 BC
That period was marked by the introduction of the media information that was previously used clay tablets. At this time humans are familiar media to store information better than tree fiber. Papyrus fibers derived from papyrus trees that grow around the Nile have been media writing / media information at that time. Papyrus fibers more powerful and flexible than the slab soil as a medium of information. Furthermore papyrus fibers is the forerunner of the media that we know today is the paper.
- In 105 AD
In the year / period 105 AD, the Chinese invented paper. The paper made daru bamboo fibers are crushed, filtered, washed, then flattened and dried. The present invention also enables the printing system is done using a wooden block ditoreh and smeared ink, or what we now know with the cap system. In the year / period, the nation Hindus in India have made the 9-digit number system that we use to this day.

3. Modern Period
- Year 1455
Johan Gutenberg developed (for the first) printing machine which uses plate letters made of iron that can be changed in a frame made of wood.

- Year 1729
Stephen Gray, who managed to send electrical signals through wires.

- Year 1830
Agusta Lady Byron wrote the first computer program in the world in collaboration with Charles Babbage using his Analytical machine which is designed capable of storing data, process data and produce output in the form of a card. These machines are known as the first form of digital computers although the way it works is more mechanical than are digital, 94 years before the first digital computer ENIAC 1 is formed.

- Year 1837
Samuel Finley Breese Morse (American researchers) found the first telegraph and developed the telegraph and Morse code along with scientists from the UK SirWilliam Cook and Sir Charles Wheatstone.

- Year 1861
Moving images projected onto a screen was first used as a forerunner to the current movie.
- Year 1876
Alexander Graham Bell first been able to transmit sound through telepon.- develop Melvyl Dewey decimal system of writing.

- Year 1877
Alexander Graham Bell developed the first phone that is used in general by establishing a company Bell TelephoneCompany. -Fotografi At high speeds found by May Edweard bridge.

- Year 1879
Telephone calling system began using the number, replace the system call name.

- Year 1891
Nikola Tesla, an American inventor who came dariAustria-Hungarian collect kumpuran Telsa is a high frequency transformers. The equipment is a vital component of a radio transmitter.

- Year 1895
Guglieimo Marconi, an Italian inventor combine ideas with the idea that hard there sendiridan transmit radio communication signals over the air first. He uses electromagnetic waves to transmit signals telegraph code at a distance of more than 1 mile.

-year 1897
Ferdinand Braun (German physicist) to develop an x-ray tube cathode (Cathode Ray Tube-CRT) cathode x-ray tube is then used to create an image on television in 1907. In 1923, Zvorkyn first create a tube TV. Then in 1927, accompanied by the sound films mulaidihasilkan. In 1936, in London have conducted the first television broadcast in black and white format.

- Year 1899
Used in a tape storage system (tape) Magnetic first.

- Year 1933
Edwin Howard Armstrong introduced a system of radio FM (frequency modulation). The advantage of this radio system can provide clearer sound despite bad weather, such as rain and storms.

- 1938
George Valensi started giving initial idea to create a broadcast color television, because television was black and white display is less good. In 1953 color broadcasts officially arrived in the United States, precisely on December 7, 1953.

- Year 1945
Vannevar Bush developed a coding system using Hypertextp.Tahun 1946ENIAC 1 was developed, as the world's first digital computer.

- 1948
Researchers at Bell Telephone developing Transiator.

- 1957
USSR (Russia at that time) launched Sputnik as the first artificial earth satellite which served as an eye-mata.Sebagai return the US to form Advance ResearchProjects Agency (ARPA) under the authority of the Department of Defense to develop knowledge in the field of military information danteknologi.

- 1958
Telegraph / underwater telegraph cables were first under the sea of ??the Atlantic Ocean.

- Year 1962
 Rand Paul barand, of the RAND Corporation, commissioned untukmengembangkan a decentralized network system mampumengendalikan system of bombings and missile launches in a nuclear war. -Telstar, The first communications satellite delivered into orbit on July 10, 1962 which is the result of collaboration NASAdengan Bell system. Telstar is then used to serve remote phone.

- 1969
The first network system formed by linking four nodes (points), the University of California, SRI (Stanford), University of California of Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah with a strength of 50 Kbps.

- Year 1972
Ray Tomlinson created the e-mail program first.

- Years 1973-1990
INTERNET The term was introduced in a paper on the TCP / IP then made the development of a network protocol that became known as TCP / IP was developed by a group of DARPA. 1981, the National Science Foundation to develop backbone called CSNET with a capacity of 56 Kbps for each institution in the government. 1986, the IETF developed a server that serves as a means of coordination between; DARPA, ARPANET, DDN and Internet Gateway.

- 1991-present
 the establishment of the Internet community, and introduced the term World Wide Web (WWW) by CERN. 1993, NSF established Inter NIC to provide internet services concerning data storage directory and database (by AT & T), registration services (by Network Solutions Inc.), and information services (by General Atomics / CERNET), in 1994 the growth of the Internet drove very fast and began marambah into all aspects of human life and to be a part that can not be separated from humans. 1995, the general company began to be allowed into the provider to buy in backbone networks, this step began development of information technology, especially the Internet and research to develop the system and more sophisticated tools.

From the development of information technology is very significant that, information technology helpful in supporting the activities of mankind. Therefore, information technology and communications role in various fields.
Below you will learn some of these areas, among others:
a. Education Sector (e-education)
Globalization has triggered a shift in education from the conventional face to face in the direction of a more open and more flexible. Some experts have long predicted the changes in education. They include the following:

1) Ivan Illich, 70s mengagas on "Education without School (Deschooling Socieiy)" which is extreme teachers no longer needed.
2) Bishop G., 1989 predicted that the future of education will be supple (flexible), open, and accessible to anyone that needs no age limit and previous educational experience.
3) Mason R., 1994 argues that the future of education will be determined by the information network that allows the interaction and collaboration ..
4) Tony Bates, 1995 stating that the technology can improve the quality and range when used wisely for education and training, and has a very important meaning for economic prosperity.
5) Alisjahbana I., 1966 argued that the approach to education and training will be "At that moment (Just on Time)", teaching techniques will be two-way, collaborative, and interdisciplinary.
6) Romiszowski & Mason (1996) predicts the use of "Computer-based Multimedia Communication (CMC)" which is synchronous and asynchronous.
From the views of experts on the above it can be concluded that with the influence of globalization, the future of education will be more open and two-way, diverse, multidisciplinary, and work productivity related to "on the spot" and competitive. The trend of education in Indonesia in the future are:

1). Development of open education with distance learning mode (Distance Learning). Ease to organize open and distance education has been of concern to the government as a key strategy.
2). Sharing resources between institutions of education / training in network.
3). Libraries and other educational instruments such as teachers and laboratories will be changed into resources.
4). The use of interactive information technology devices, such as CD-ROM and Multimedia, in education gradually replace the TV and Video.
With the development of information technology in education, is already possible to place a distance learning using the internet to connect between learners with educators, see the value of online learners, financial checks, see the class schedule, send the tasks assigned educators and so on. A major factor in the long distance learning is considered a problem is the lack of interaction between educators and learners. With the internet, it is possible to make the interaction between educators and learners both in real time (real time) or not. Through this form of real time can be performed in a chatroom, a direct interaction with real audio or real video, and online meetings. Forms are not real time can be done by mailing lists, discussion groups, newsgroups, and bulletin board. In this way the interaction of teachers and students in the classroom can be replaced, although not completely. Through the web, forms of matter, exams, quizzes and other educational means can also be realized. Educators material made in the form of presentations on the web and can be downloaded by learners. Exams and quizzes created by educators can also be done in the same way. Administrative matters can also be solved directly in the registration process, supported by online payment methods. With a web-based distance education can be developed things below.

1). Fitness activities learners.
As a web-based distance learning community can make this facility as a place of activity can increase the ability of learners, reading the subject matter, search and so on.
2). Interaction in a group of learners.
Learners can interact with each other to discuss the materials provided educators. Educators may be present in this group to give a little review of the material provided.
3). System administration learners.
Learners can view information about the status, achievements and so on.
4). Deepening of the material and do a short quiz exams and assignments for the deepening of what has been taught and perform tests at the end of the study.
5). The digital library for information.
The literature is not limited to books but also on digital libraries such as sound, images and so supported by the database.
6). Online material beyond the subject matter.
To support the lessons, of course is also required reading material from other web. Educators and students can be directly involved to provide other materials for publication to other students via the web.

In developed countries, distance education has an educational alternative that is preferred. This educational method followed by the students, employees, executives, and even housewives and the elderly (retired). Several years ago the exchange of material is done by correspondence, or equipped with audio and video material. Now almost the entire distance learning programs in the Americas, Australia and Europe can also be accessed via the internet. Studies conducted by the United States, strongly supports the development of e-learning.

Global Distance Learning Network (GDLN) is very effective, enabling 30% of education for the better, 40% less time and 30% lower cost. The World Bank (World Bank) in 1997 has announced a program of the Global Distance Learning Network (GDLN), which has members / partners of 80 countries in the world. Through GDLN The World Bank can provide e-learning to the learners five times more (from 30 to 150 students) and costs 31% less.

b. Government Sector (e-government)
E-government refers to the use of information technology by government, such as using the intranet and the Internet, which has the ability to connect the purposes of residents, businesses, and other activities. At the core of e-government is the use of information technology can improve the relationship between the government and other parties. The use of information technology is then generate new forms of relationships such as: G2C (Governmet to Citizen), G2B (Government to Business) and G2G (Government to Government). The benefits of e-government can be felt among others:

1) .Public Service, information can be provided 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, without waiting for the opening of an office, the information can be sought from the office, home, without having to physically come to the government offices.
2) .  Relationship between government, business and the general public, openness (transparency) it is expected that the relationship between the various parties for the better, this openness to eliminate mutual suspicion and resentment on all sides.
3) .  Society through information easily available. With sufficient information, the public will learn to be its choice. For example, data about the school: the number of classes, student capacity, passing grade, and so on, can be displayed online and used by parents to choose the right school for their children.
4) . Implementation more efficient government. Coordination of government can be done via e-mail or even video conferencing. For Indonesia, the area is very large, it is very helpful. Debriefing, coordination, discussions between local leaders can do without all must be at the same physical location. No longer any need to fly to Jakarta for a meeting that lasted one or two hours.
Public demand for good governance has been urged to be implemented by the government apparatus. One solution that is needed is integration of government administration system through a network of on-line information system between government agencies at both central and local access to all data and information technology is mainly related to the public service. In the government sector, environmental changes and technological advances encourage government officials to anticipate new things and improving performance and improving services towards realization of good government (good govermance).

c. Finance and Banking
Now it has a lot of economic actors, especially in large cities that no longer use cash in payment transactions, but have used modern banking services. Modern banking services that exist only in big cities is understandable because of the current economic growth is still concentrated in large cities only, which causes the velocity of money is also concentrated in the big cities. So the banking sector was somewhat slow in its expansion into the regions. This is somewhat due to the current condition of infrastructure in addition to the geographical aspects of Indonesia's unique and extensive.
To support the operational success of a financial institution / banks, such as bank, certainly needed a reliable information system that can be accessed easily by customers, which in turn will depend on the technology of information online, for example, a customer can withdraw money wherever it is located as long as No service ATM (Automated Teller Machine) of a bank, or a customer can check balances and transfer money to another account in a matter of minutes, all transactions can be done.
Developments in information technology Indonesia strongly influenced by human resource capacity in the understanding of information technology components, such as hardware and computer software; network systems either a LAN (Local Area Network) or WAN (Wide Area Network) and telecommunications systems that will be used to transfer data. The need for energy based on information technology continues to increase; this can be seen with many types of jobs that require skills in the field of information technology in various fields; Also the number of HR (Human Resources) capable in the field of information technology is still small, when compared with the population of Indonesia.

We need a national information technology framework that will bring people of Indonesia prepared for the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) to provide universal access to information to the public in a fair and equitable, improve coordination and optimal utilization of information, improve efficiency and productivity, improve quality and quantity of human resources, improve the utilization of information technology infrastructure, including the application of laws and regulations that support it; encourage economic growth in the use and development of information technology. This is one reality of economic globalization the real world. National economic integration with the regional economy / global as AFTA, APEC, WTO / GATT is not inevitable. The fact the integration of the world economy is indeed should we prepare and face.

d. Field of Commerce and Trade (e-commerce)
Electronic Comerce (e-commerce) or electronic commerce is the trade done with memanfaatan telecommunications networks, especially the Internet. The Internet allows people or organizations who are at long distances can communicate at a low cost. This is then used to conduct trade transactions.
There are many forms of trade conducted electronically now, among others: Internet Banking, the purchase and provision of goods, online stores and so on. E-commerce provides advantages both to the company and to the customer (customer).
Gains derived by companies among others as below.

1) E-commerce enables the company to sell its products to more people. In other words, the company can reach a wider market. For example, companies or stores in the US can sell to people in Japan.
2) The Company does not need to open many branches of distribution.
3) Reduce the cost the company, because the company does not need to provide a large store and a lot of employees.
4) Because of the costs the company may be reduced, then the price of goods can be sold for less. As a result, more consumers are able to reach the price of the goods. Goods become more salable.
5) Items are sold cheaper to increase the competitiveness of companies.

While consumers keuntungkan obtained as follows.

1) Consumers do not need to go to the store to get the goods, quite to the Internet and order goods, the goods will be escorted to the house.
2) Buyers can save time and transportation costs to shop.
3) Having more choices, it can compare all the products on the Internet.
4) to buy goods that exist in other countries, that man in the country may be available.
5) The price of goods that are bought to be lower.

Now there are many companies that utilize electronic trading to support their efforts. Even some companies specializing in electronic trading and does not trade in the conventional (regular). In Indonesia, electronic commerce also been started. Some websites set up specifically as a website to sell goods. Some examples include:, and much more.
E-commerce is a dynamic set of technologies, applications, and processes that connect corporate flying businesses, consumers and communities through electronic transactions and trade in goods, services information that will be conducted electronically. " On the internet, you can also make buying and selling goods. Now on the internet there are many online stores.

Physically, they are not store in the truest sense. They only provide a web site, and through this web site you can order certain items on them. Let's say you want to buy a car. You just fill out the form, write the specifications of the car you want to buy, and then press the buy (buy). Payment is made by credit card (via internet too). A few days later, the car you these messages delivered to your home.
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